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Spring® is a very popular open-source Java framework used for building enterprise-level web applications and microservices. This series or collection of tutorials is designed to help you get started with the Spring framework.
With our building blocks, developers can easily and quickly put together their applications.
Useful and common tech stacks around Spring and Spring Boot are explored in more detail.
Deploying the own app properly on the right infrastructure can be challenging.
Don't invent the wheel from scratch, but rely on the tried and tested ones for fast development.
All updates around Spring are written together on a weekly basis for developers to be always up to date.
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All Series for Java®
Java® is one of the most popular and widely used programming languages of the last years or even decades. To better use the Spring framework, this series or collection of tutorials is designed to help you understand and get started with the Java programming language.
To learn Spring, a Java framework, you should know at least the basics in Java or learn them first. Get started with our series for Java and its fundamentals.
Learn all about crypto and encryption in Java, which can be used in the Spring framework as well. Experience theoretical background knowledge and practical use.
Hardly any other topic is as hyped and relevant today as AI (artificial intelligence) or ML (machine learning). Find out how to use them in Java and Spring.
Glimpses of the Spring World
„Spring® makes programming Java quicker, easier, and safer for everybody. Spring’s focus on speed, simplicity, and productivity has made it the world's most popular Java framework.“ according to the official statement by the developers of spring.io (VMware) – Spring is a trademark of Pivotal Software, Inc. in the U.S. and other countries.
Just not that fast: Two decades have passed since the first version of Spring (or the Spring framework) was released, and it has been continuously developed ever since. You can say that Spring in its current version of Spring 6 belongs to one of the most stable and popular Java frameworks for developing enterprise-level applications passing many acid tests of several big players from various branches (e.g., Netflix, Alibaba, LinkedIn, Uber, Udemy, Trivago) under productive conditions.
Spring Boot release in April 2014 makes it easy to create standalone Spring-based apps, which require a minimum Spring configuration. One of the reason is the embedded Tomcat, Jetty or Undertow container. This enables to run the Spring Boot app as simple .jar-file; no need to deploy a .war-file (while this options still exists). The current major version is Spring Boot 3.
Spring is simply a trademark of Pivotal Software, Inc. in the U.S. and other countries. The Spring framework (often abbreviated as Spring) is the actual "product", an application framework for Java: it has in particular gained adoption in the Java community for several compelling reasons:
- Modularity: Spring is based on a modular design that allows developers to choose the components they need for their applications. This modularity promotes flexibility and avoids unnecessary dependencies, making it easier to manage and maintain your code base.
- Dependency Injection: The core feature of Spring is its robust support for Dependency Injection (DI). DI helps decouple the components of your application, making them easier to test and maintain. It also encourages the use of interfaces and abstractions, making it easier to create more maintainable and testable code.
- Aspect Oriented Programming (AOP): Spring provides excellent support for AOP, allowing you to separate cross-cutting concerns such as logging, security, and transaction management from the business logic of your application. This promotes cleaner and more maintainable code.
- IoC container: Spring's Inversion of Control (IoC) container manages the lifecycle of objects and their dependencies. It reduces the complexity of managing object creation and contributes to loose coupling between components.
- Modularity: Spring is built on a modular design, allowing developers to pick and choose the components they need for their applications. This modularity promotes flexibility and avoids unnecessary dependencies, making it easier to manage and maintain your codebase.
- Dependency Injection: Spring's core feature is its robust support for dependency injection (DI). DI helps decouple your application's components, making them easier to test and maintain. It also promotes the use of interfaces and abstractions, which aids in creating more maintainable and testable code.
- Aspect-Oriented Programming (AOP): Spring provides excellent support for AOP, allowing you to separate cross-cutting concerns such as logging, security, and transaction management from your application's business logic. This promotes cleaner and more maintainable code.
- IoC Container: Spring's Inversion of Control (IoC) container manages the lifecycle of objects and their dependencies. It reduces the complexity of managing object creation and helps achieve loose coupling between components.
- Enterprise Integration: Spring offers extensive support for integrating with various enterprise technologies and frameworks, such as databases (JDBC, JPA), messaging (JMS), and web services. This makes it well-suited for building large-scale, distributed applications.
- Simplified Configuration: Spring provides multiple ways to configure your application, including XML, JavaConfig, and annotations. This flexibility allows developers to choose the approach that best suits their preferences and project requirements.
- Testability: Spring promotes test-driven development by facilitating the creation of unit tests. Its support for DI and the ability to use mock objects make it easier to write testable code and conduct unit testing.
- Community and Ecosystem: Spring has a vibrant and active community of developers and a vast ecosystem of extensions and third-party libraries. This means you can often find solutions to common problems or access additional functionality through Spring extensions.
- Security: Spring Security is a subproject of the Spring Framework that provides comprehensive security features for Java applications. It simplifies tasks such as authentication, authorization, and protection against common security vulnerabilities.
- Continuous Improvement: The Spring team regularly releases updates and improvements, ensuring that the framework stays relevant and continues to address evolving development challenges.
- Open Source: Spring is an open-source framework, which means it's freely available, and you can inspect its source code. This openness fosters transparency, community contributions, and innovation.
Overall, Spring is a versatile and powerful framework that simplifies many aspects of Java application development, making it a preferred choice for building robust and scalable enterprise applications. However, the choice of framework ultimately depends on your project's specific requirements and your team's familiarity with the technology stack.
Spring Boot – as described in detail in the next tab – is the popular extension for creating production-grade Spring applications, relying on the convention-over-configuration (CoC) or coding-by-convention design paradigm that emphasizes a set of default conventions and assumptions to reduce the amount of configuration and boilerplate code required in a software project. This design pattern is not only associated with the Spring Boot but also with other frameworks and tools in the software development ecosystem, such as Ruby on Rails, and Django, among others. The core idea behind CoC is to make software development more efficient and developer-friendly by providing sensible defaults and reducing the need for developers to make repetitive configuration decisions. Instead of requiring explicit configuration for every aspect of a project, CoC encourages developers to adhere to naming conventions, directory structures, and other conventions that are predefined by the framework or tool.
Spring Boot is a popular extension of the Spring Framework that simplifies and accelerates the development of Java-based web and microservices applications. It provides a set of tools, conventions, and opinionated defaults that make it easier to build production-ready applications with minimal configuration. Here are some of the key things Spring Boot can do:
- Rapid Development:Spring Boot eliminates the need for extensive configuration files and boilerplate code, allowing developers to get started quickly. It comes with sensible defaults and auto-configuration, reducing the need for manual setup.
- Embedded Servers: Spring Boot includes embedded web servers like Tomcat, Jetty, and Undertow. This means you can package your application as a self-contained executable JAR or WAR file, making deployment simpler.
- Auto-Configuration: Spring Boot automatically configures many common components and libraries based on your project's dependencies. It detects the classpath and sets up default configurations, reducing the need for manual configuration.
- Dependency Management: Spring Boot manages dependencies through its "starter" modules. You can easily include pre-configured sets of dependencies for common use cases (e.g., web applications, data access) by adding relevant starter dependencies to your project.
- Spring Boot Actuator: This module provides production-ready features for monitoring and managing your application. It offers endpoints for metrics, health checks, application information, and more, which can be useful for operational tasks.
- Spring Boot DevTools: DevTools enhance the development experience by providing features like automatic application restarts, remote debugging, and live reload of static resources.
- Spring Boot CLI: The Command-Line Interface (CLI) allows you to quickly create, test, and run Spring Boot applications from the command line. It simplifies the development process by providing a command-driven interface.
- Microservices Support: Spring Boot is well-suited for building microservices applications. It integrates seamlessly with Spring Cloud, a set of tools and frameworks for building distributed systems and microservices architectures.
- Customization: While Spring Boot provides sensible defaults, it allows developers to customize configurations as needed. You can override auto-configured settings and add your own custom configurations when necessary.
- Testing: Spring Boot makes it easy to write unit tests and integration tests for your application. It provides annotations and utilities for testing Spring components, making it a developer-friendly choice for test-driven development.
- Security: Spring Boot integrates with Spring Security to provide robust security features for your applications. You can configure authentication, authorization, and various security mechanisms easily.
- Data Access: Spring Boot simplifies data access by providing auto-configuration for databases, including JDBC, JPA (Java Persistence API), and NoSQL databases like MongoDB.
- Messaging: It offers support for messaging systems like Apache Kafka and RabbitMQ, making it suitable for building event-driven and messaging-based applications.
- RESTful Web Services: Spring Boot makes it straightforward to build RESTful APIs by leveraging Spring MVC. It simplifies the development of RESTful endpoints and supports features like content negotiation and validation.
- Community and Ecosystem: Spring Boot benefits from the vibrant Spring community and ecosystem, which includes a wide range of extensions, third-party libraries, and community-driven resources.
Overall, Spring Boot streamlines the development process, making it easier to create production-ready Java applications, including web applications, microservices, and more, with minimal effort and maximum productivity.
The Spring® Framework is a comprehensive and modular framework for building enterprise applications in Java. It offers a wide range of extensions and projects that cater to various aspects of application development. Here are some notable extensions and projects within the Spring ecosystem:
- Spring Boot: Spring Boot simplifies the setup and development of Spring applications by providing a convention-over-configuration approach. It includes embedded servers, production-ready features, and a wide range of starters for various technologies.
- Spring Security: This extension provides comprehensive security features for authentication, authorization, and protection against common security threats.
- Spring Data: Spring Data provides a consistent and efficient way to work with data stores, including relational databases, NoSQL databases, and more. It includes sub-projects like Spring Data JPA, Spring Data MongoDB, and Spring Data Redis.
- Spring Cloud: Spring Cloud offers tools and libraries for building microservices and cloud-native applications. It includes modules like Spring Cloud Netflix (integration with Netflix OSS components), Spring Cloud Config (centralized configuration management), and Spring Cloud Sleuth (distributed tracing).
- Spring Integration: Spring Integration provides support for building messaging and event-driven applications by integrating with various messaging systems and protocols.
- Spring Batch: Spring Batch is a framework for building batch processing applications. It simplifies the development of batch jobs, such as data import/export or ETL (Extract, Transform, Load) processes.
- Spring Web Flow: This extension is used for building web applications with complex flows and state management.
- Spring Web Services: Spring Web Services is a framework for creating SOAP and RESTful web services.
- Spring Websocket: This module enables WebSocket-based communication in Spring applications, facilitating real-time, bidirectional communication between clients and servers.
- Spring Mobile: Spring Mobile provides tools for building mobile web applications.
- Spring Session: Spring Session provides session management solutions that are consistent across different container environments (e.g., servlet containers, Redis, JDBC).
- Spring Social: Spring Social simplifies integration with social network APIs, allowing you to connect with platforms like Facebook, Twitter, and LinkedIn.
- Spring HATEOAS: This module helps in building hypermedia-driven RESTful web services by adding support for HATEOAS (Hypertext as the Engine of Application State).
- Spring AMQP: Spring AMQP offers support for building messaging applications using the Advanced Message Queuing Protocol (AMQP).
- Spring for Android: This extension is used for developing Android applications using the Spring Framework.
It is important to note that the Spring ecosystem is continually evolving. To stay up-to-date with the latest developments and extensions, we refer to the official Spring website.